In Text Citations

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication.

One Author: (Miller, 2012)

Two to Five: (Miller, Adams, & Reed, 2009)

Six or more: (Smith et al., 2008)

No Author-List the Title of the Book or Article in quotes

        ("Herbs at a Glance," 2012)

Corporate Author

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2012)

No Date - Use n.d. (for no date)

(Smithers, n.d.)

Multiple Sources

When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all authors name in parentheses in alphabetical order. e.g. (Collins, 2001; Merrion & Rogers, 2010; Williams, 2010).

APA Formatting Video

Video uploaded to YouTube by  on Oct 30, 2009

Available Resources

DOI Help

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

General Rules for APA

General: Your paper should be typed and double-spaced, with 1" margins on all sides. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.

Capitalization Rules: for in text and  Reference List citations

For all sources other than periodicals (that is, newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals), capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns only. Do not capitalize the rest.

All major words in periodical titles should be capitalized (for example, Psychology Today, Journal of the American Medical Association.)

Italics: Titles are italicized for the following items:

Web sites
Reports/technical papers
Works of art

Example in text:  In the book, Hope for the heated planet, the author states that...

Quotes: Titles are placed in quotes for the following items

journal article
book chapter
newspaper or magazine article
blog post
encyclopedia entry
Wikipedia entry
dictionary entry

Example in text:  In the song "Imagine," John Lennon asks the listener to ....

Book with Author


Lastname, First name initials. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capital letter

         also for subtitle. Place of Publication city and state: Publisher.


Foster, S., & Johnson, R.L. (2006). Desk reference to nature's medicine. 

         Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

In text

(Foster & Johnson, 2006)

Book with an Editor


Last name, First initials (Ed.). (year of publication). Title of book. Place of

            publication city and state abbreviated: Publisher.


Blumenthal, M. (Ed). (2000). Herbal medicine. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

In text

(Blumenthal, 2000)

Entry/Chapter in an Encyclopedia/Book


Lastname, First name initials. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Title of work: Capital letter

         also for subtitle (Vol. #, pp. #s). Place of Publication city and state: Publisher.


Foster, S., & Johnson, R.L. (2006). Aloe Vera. In Desk reference to nature's medicine (pp.23-25). 

         Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

In text

(Foster & Johnson, 2006)

Book from EBSCO eBook Academic Collection


Author(s). (Year of Publication). Title of book. Retrieved from Library Database url


Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism.

         Retrieved from

In text

(Neville, 2010)

Cummings, J. L., Prince, M., & Krishnamoorthy, E. S. (2010). Dementia:

         a global approach. Retrieved from

In text

(Cummings et al., 2010)

Ebook from Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL)


Author of entry Last name, First initial. (Year of Publication). Title of entry.

               Title of book (Edition, Volume, Page numbers). Retrieved from url


Skinner, P. (2011). Flower Remedies. In L. J. Fundukian (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of

               medicine (4th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1750-1753). Retrieved from

In text

(Skinner, 2011)

Article from Library Database

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(issue), Page Numbers. Retrieved from URL


Schindler, M., Engel, S., & Rupprecht, R. (2012). The impact of perceived knowledge of dementia on

            caregiver burden. Geropsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry,

              25(3), 127-134.  Retrieved from

In text

(Schindler et al., 2012)

NOTE:  The example above is for a scholarly journal article with a DOI.  Not all articles have a DOI assigned to them.  For more information about DOIs and what to do when you don't have a DOI, consult the DOI and URL Flowchart.

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(issue), Page Numbers.


Drew, L. (2014, January 11). Down with dementia. New Scientist, 221(2951), 32-35.

            Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

NOTE: The example above is for a magazine article that had a volume and issue assigned.  Not all magazine articles have a volume and issue.  Also, this magazine article did not have a DOI.  Instead of the DOI, the name of the database where the article was found was used. 



Author, Institution, or Organization Responsible for the Website (if available).  (Year, Month Day

               website was last updated). Title or description of page. Retrieved Month Day, Year you visited

               the website, from URL (address of website)



National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2013, December). Herbs at a

         glance: Aloe vera. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from

In text

first citation

(National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [NCCAM], 2006)

(NCCAM, 2006)

Videos / Motion Pictures


Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication).

            Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.


Galan, H. (Producer). (2007). Chicano!: The history of the Mexican American civil rights

               movement  [Motion Picture]. United States: National Latino Communications Center.

In text

(Producer & Director)

(Galan, 2007)



Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work],

           Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL (address of website)



Hemming, R. (Photographer). (1940). Group of children sitting on wooden bench [Photograph],

              Retrieved Oct. 18, 2013, from

In text

(Hemming, 1940)

Japanese Geisha with Umbrella [Painting]. (1925). Retrieved May 15, 2013,


 In text

("Japanese Geisha with Umbrella," 1925)