Citations

Available Resources

In Text Citations

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication.

One Author: (Miller, 2019)

Two Authors: (Miller & Adams, 2016)

Three or more: (Smith et al., 2018)

No Author-List the Title of the Book or Article in quotes

        ("Herbs at a Glance," 2017)

Corporate Author

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2018)

No Date - Use n.d. (for no date)

(Smithers, n.d.)


Multiple Sources

When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all author names in parentheses in alphabetical order; e.g. (Collins, 2018; Merrion & Rogers, 2019; Williams, 2013).

General Rules

General [Rules 2.19-2.22]:

Your paper should be typed and double-spaced, with 1" margins on all sides.  APA requires using the same font throughout the text of the paper, whether it is a sans serif font such as 11-point Calibri or a serif font such as 12 pt. Times New Roman.  

Title Page:  See APA's Student Title Page Guide


Capitalization [Rules 6.16 & 6.17]:

Titles of Works 

  • Title Case:  When titles of works appear within the text, title case applies.  Capitalize the first word and all major words (for example, The Wind in the Willows; Lord of the Rings; "Another Brick in the Wall, Part 3"; "Dewey Defeats Truman"). 
    • The first words and all major words in titles of newspapers, magazines, and journals should always be capitalized (for example, Psychology Today, The New York TimesJournal of the American Medical Association).
  • Sentence Case:  Within reference list entries, sentence case applies for titles of all sources other than newspapers, magazines, and journals.  Capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns only. Do not capitalize the rest.

Diseases, Disorders, Therapies, Theories, and Related Terms - [see examples from APA]

  • Generally do not capitalize the names of: diseases or disorders; therapies and treatments; theories, concepts, hypotheses, principles, models, and statistical procedures.
  • However, do capitalize personal names within diseases, disorders, therapies, and theories, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Italics [Rules 6.22 & 6.23]:

Titles are italicized for the following items: books, films, ebooks, newspapers, magazines, journals, websites, technical reports, and works of art.

Example in text:  In the book, Hope for the Heated Planet, the author states that...


Double Quotation Marks [Rule 6.7]:

Titles are placed in double quotation marks ("") for the following items: journal articles, book chapters, newspaper or magazine articles, blog posts, webpages, encyclopedia entries, Wikipedia entries, dictionary entries, and songs.

Example in text:  In the song, "Imagine," John Lennon asks the listener to ....

Books and eBooks

Try this!  APA's Quick Reference Guide shows in detail how to cite a book.

FORMAT [Rule 10.2]

BOOK/EBOOK WITH AUTHOR

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Subtitle, if applicable, with only its first letter capitalized (edition if applicable, Volume if applicable). Publisher. DOI for ebook*

BOOK/EBOOK WITH EDITOR, NO AUTHOR

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.) (Year of Publication). Title of work: Subtitle, if applicable, with only its first letter capitalized (edition if applicable, Volume if applicable). Publisher. DOI for ebook*

BOOK/EBOOK WITH EDITOR AND AUTHOR

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Subtitle, if applicable, with only its first letter capitalized (edition if applicable, Volume if applicable). (First initial. Middle initial. Last name, Ed.). Publisher. DOI for ebook*

* The DOI is preferred over the URL for eBooks.  However, eBooks in PC Library databases do not usually show a DOI.  For eBooks from databases, do not include a database name. Instead, just omit the DOI.  This rule is for books, book chapters, and journal articles.

EXAMPLES

Bocking, S. (2017). Ecologists and environmental politics: A history of contemporary ecology (2nd ed.). West Virginia University Press.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Bocking, 2017)

​Fiese, B. H., Celano, M., Deater-Deckard, K., Jouriles, E. N., & Whisman, M. A. (Eds.). (2019). APA handbook of contemporary family psychology: Foundations, methods, and contemporary issues across the lifespan (Vol. 1). American Psychological Association.https://doi.org/10.1037/0000099

  • Parenthetical citation: (Fiese et al., 2019)

Zaretsky, N. (2018). Radiation nation: Three Mile Island and the political transformation of the 1970s. Columbia University Press.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Zaretsky, 2018)

Chapters/Entries in Books/Encyclopedias

Try this!  APA's Quick Reference Guide shows in detail how to cite a chapter in a book with an editor.

FORMAT [Rule 10.3]

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter or entry. In First initial. Middle initial. Last name (Ed. or Eds.), Title of work: Subtitle, if applicable, with only its first letter capitalized (edition if applicable, Volume if applicable*, pp. number range). Publisher. DOI for ebook**

* Volumes are often numbered, but untitled, as in the last example below (Skinner, 2011).  If, however, the Volume has a title, include both the Vol. # and its title in italics at the end of the title and subtitle of the book, as in the first example below (Cochran, 2019).

** The DOI is preferred over the URL for eBooks.  However, eBooks in PC Library databases do not usually show a DOI.  For eBooks from databases, do not include a database name. Instead, just omit the DOI.  This rule is for books, book chapters, and journal articles.

EXAMPLES

Cochran, K. A. (2019). Tragedy of the commons. In R. Renneboog (Ed.), Encyclopedia of environmental issues: Vol. 4. R to Z; Appendixes (3rd ed., pp. 1234-1235). Salem Press.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Cochran, 2019)

Foster, S., & Johnson, R. L. (2006). Aloe vera. In Desk reference to nature's medicine (pp. 23-25). National Geographic Society.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Foster & Johnson, 2006)

Leerkes, E. M., & Qu, J. (2019). Families with infants and young children. In B. H. Fiese, M. Celano, K. Deater-Deckard, E. N. Jouriles, & M. A. Whisman (Eds.), APA handbook of contemporary family psychology: Foundations, methods, and contemporary issues across the lifespan (pp. 575–591). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000099-032

  • Parenthetical citation: (Leerkes & Qu, 2019)

Skinner, P. (2011). Flower remedies. In L. J. Fundukian (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of medicine (4th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1750-1753). Thompson Gale.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Skinner, 2011)

Articles (including those from library databases)

Try this!  A very helpful resource for citing journal articles is APA's Quick Reference Guide.

SCHOLARLY ARTICLE FORMAT [Rule 9.25; Rule 10.1]

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(issue), Page Numbers. DOI*

* The DOI is preferred over the URL for journal articles.  For articles from PC Library databases that do not include a DOI, just omit it.  This rule is for books, book chapters, and journal articles.

EXAMPLES  [Also see:  APA journal article examples]

Anonymous. (2018). Iran disillusioned. Survival, 60(2), 231–236. https://doi.org/10.1080/00396338.2018.1448598

  • Parenthetical citation: (Anonymous, 2018)

De Jong, M. G. G., Seijmonsbergens, A. C., & De Graaff, L. W. S. (2019). In search of stratigraphic subdivision of the period 8-0 ka in Greenland ice cores. Polish Polar Research, 40(2), 55–77. https://doi.org/10.24425/ppr.2019.128367

  • Parenthetical citation: (De Jong et al., 2019)

Schindler, M., Engel, S., & Rupprecht, R. (2012). The impact of perceived knowledge of dementia on caregiver burden. Geropsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(3), 127-134. https://doi.org/10.1024/1662-9647/a000062

  • Parenthetical citation: (Schindler & Rupprecht, 2012)

NOTE:  The examples above are for scholarly journal articles with DOIs.  Not all articles have a DOI assigned to them. 


MAGAZINE ARTICLE FORMAT [Rule 10.1]

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(issue), Page Numbers. DOI or URL*

The DOI is preferred over the URL for magazine articles.  Many magazine articles from PC Library databases will not have a DOI, so just omit it.  For magazine articles from free websites, use the URL.

EXAMPLES [Also see:  APA magazine article examples]

Drew, L. (2014, January 11). Down with dementia. New Scientist, 221(2951), 32-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0262-4079(14)60088-9

  • Parenthetical citation: (Drew, 2014)

Glover-Ward, N. (2019). Editorial [Editorial]. Approach: The Naval Safety Center’s Aviation Magazine, 62(4), 3.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Glover-Ward, 2019)

Parker, L., Daly, N., & Royte, E. (2018, June). Plastic. National Geographic, 233(6), 40.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Parker et al., 2018)

NOTE: The first example above (Drew, 2014) is for a magazine article that had a volume and issue assigned.  Not all magazine articles have a volume and issue.


NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FORMAT [Rule 10.1]

Author(s). (Date). Article title. Newspaper Title, Volume(issue), Page Numbers. URL*

* If the newspaper article is from a PC Library database, omit the URL.  For newspapers from websites, such as the first example below, include the URL.   

EXAMPLES [Also see:  APA newspaper article examples]

Maidenberg, M., & Ziobro, P. (2019, Nov 27). UPS workers arrested in drug shipping bust; police say Tucson, Ariz., ring moved bulk amounts of drugs through shipping giant; 50,000 THC vape pens seized. Wall Street Journal (Online). https://www.wsj.com/articles/ups-workers-arrested-in-drug-shipping-bust-11574896107

  • Parenthetical citation: (Maidenberg & Ziobro, 2019)

Nader, R. (2018, Aug 23). Driverless-car legislation is unsafe at this speed. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition).

  • Parenthetical citation: (Nader, 2018)

Wasted lessons from Afghanistan [Editorial]. (2019, Dec 11). New York Times.

  • Parenthetical citation: ("Wasted Lessons from Afghanistan," 2019)

Webpages

FORMAT [Rule 10.16]

Author, Institution, or Organization Responsible for the Website (if available).  (Year, Month Day website was last updated). Title or description of page. Title of website [if different from page title]. URL (address of website)

Retrieval Date:  Use only for a webpage whose contents are likely to change over time.  See the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine citation below for an example on how to write out a retrieval date. 

EXAMPLES  [Also see:  APA webpage examples]

Amaranth Farm. (2019, September 26).  Notes on holistic orcharding. Amaranth Farm. https://amaranthfarmnh.blogspot.com/2019/09/holistic-orcaharding-was-not.html

  • Parenthetical citation: (Amaranth Farm, 2019)

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2016, November 29). Aloe vera. Health Information. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/aloevera

  • Parenthetical citation: (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [NCCAM], 2006)

Thereafter, abbreviate, to:

(NCCAM, 2006)

Videos / Motion Pictures

Format [Rule 10.12]

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [description, for example: Film, Video, TV series, or Webinar]. Studio or distributor.

If the director is not identified, use instead: Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). -or- Host, H. H. (Host). -or- Artist, A. A. (Artist). -or- Uploader, U. U. (Uploader).

Examples [Also see:  APA YouTube video example]

Chazelle, D. (Director).  (2019). First man [Film]. Universal Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Chazelle, 2019)

Galan, H. (Producer). (2007). Chicano!: The history of the Mexican American civil rights [Film]. United States: National Latino Communications Center.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Galan, 2007)

McCune, B. (Uploader).  (2009, November 8). A history of Phoenix College [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeZ-gP4Xpd0

  • Parenthetical citation: (McCune, 2009)

Images

Format [Rule 10.14]

Artist, A. A. (Year or years image was created). Title of work [Type of work]. URL (address of website)

Examples

Hemming, R. (1940). Group of children sitting on wooden bench [Photograph]. http://memory.loc.gov

  • Parenthetical citation: (Hemming, 1940)

Japanese geisha with umbrella [Painting]. (1925). http://fineartamerica.com/art/paintings/japanese

  • Parenthetical citation: ("Japanese geisha with umbrella," 1925)

Scholder, F. (1994). Another martyr No. 4 [Sculpture].

  • Parenthetical citation: (Scholder, 1994)